Low sperm counts, poor sperm quality and decreased fertility are more likely to occur among men who've had an undescended testicle.
The peak incidence occurs in the third and fourth decades of life.
Combining the results from a survey of pregnant women prior to their due date in correlation with the health of their children and an ex vivo rat model, the study found that pregnant women who had been exposed to mild analgesics had a higher prevalence of baby boys born with congenital cryptorchidism.
That retained testicle must be surgically removed, because leaving it inside the dog's body can have unfortunate long-term.
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Some of the men decided not to have a false testicle inserted.